Data Compression


Survey Formats


Compression Methods

Data Formats


Audio Data

Image Data

Video Data





Principle of MPEG

Picture Types

Sequence of Pictures


Processing and Archiving





Title: Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1,5 Mbit/s

The development of MPEG-1 started in 1988 and was applied in the early 90's in a first generation of products. The major focus of MPEG-1 is the coding at data transfer rates which were given by the common parameters for CD ROM (video) and ISDN (audio).

In the meantime MPEG-1 is of minor importance with exception of the MP3 audio format. The basic assumptions about maximum data transfer rate, volume of the media and buffer capacity are outdated. Meanwhile the sophisticated MPEG-2 data streams can be decoded only by using software implementations based on standard PCs.

MPEG-1 Applications:

MP3 Player (MPEG-1 Audio Layer III)

The native layer III audio coding of MPEG-1 represents the most successful application. Extensions and further developments are effective here meanwhile too (e.g. AAC).

Audio On Demand (MPEG-1 Audio Layer III)

The first audio on demand services operated with two ISDN lines in parallel. It was the aim to supply the customers in real time. These basic parameters were responsible, among others, for the dimensioning of the third audio layer.

DCC (Digital Compact Cassette; MPEG-1 Audio Layer II)

The DCC should serve as digital follow-up system for the analogue compact cassette. The linear tape system worked with audio layer II and was able to achieve a quality similar to CD. Contrary to the competitive system MiniDisc (Sony), the DCC could not be placed at the market. The MiniDisc uses an ATRAC format for audio compression.

CD-I FMV (CD-Interactive Full Motion Video)

The CD-I, an interactive CD player with multimedia functions, intended for home applications was one of the first MPEG-1 video implementations. The CD-I system based on the standard speed for audio playback (2324 byte/frame = 174,300 byte/s) and has set the basic requirements for the standard transfer rate of MPEG 1. The CD-I-System could not be established at the market, too.


Special solutions decoding MPEG-1 video streams were available equipped with specific decoder hardware. Due to the price and the limited quality of MPEG-1 these products did not achieve a larger relevance. Concerning data transfer rate, the same is valid as mentioned with the CD-I.

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